Thursday, January 19, 2006
Other than several law review articles that I have published because a topic came to mind that was best handled in a law review article, I said goodbye to law review articles a long time ago. In fact, I started that trend before I earned tenure. Early on I chose to write books, and did several before earning tenure, because I saw little value in writing for the small audience of law review readers. I want what I say and think to reach as many people as possible, and most of the people whom I wish to reach, and help, are taxpayers and citizens who rarely look at law review articles.
Of course, there are many in "the academy" who look down on my writing. Fortunately, deans, who know what really is involved in teaching to more folks than just those currently matriculated, and who delight in any positive mention of the law school in any venue, have been supportive. Hey, my school's dean has a blog. He encouraged me to blog (and thus remains, sometimes bemused, as an unofficial godfather of MauledAgain).
So to those who are pondering Rosa Brooks' observations and dilemma, there are several things to consider:
1. Law schools with merit compensation systems in place give higher value to articles published in journals than to blogs, op-ed pieces, etc. Of course, if money doesn't matter, this point is irrelevant. Well, no, it's not. Consider the next point.
2. Law schools encourage post-tenure publishing (as well as pre-tenure publishing) because they want points in the rankings game and they like the publicity that scholarship brings. Whether law schools have the valuation priorities in appropriate order is questionable. Why?
3. Law review articles are read by few people, but among those few might be people filling out US New Surveys, though I've never figured out why someone on the faculty of a top 40 school would put a non-elite school ahead of an elite school. After all, folks who have claimed seats at the head table may fight over the seating placement at that table but they'll gang up to keep interlopers from grabbing a seat.
4. Publicity in terms of quality rather than quantity has its advantages, but not for most of the purposes for which law schools desire scholarship. A well-written article in a poorly circulated journal carrying little reputation is far less likely to better the reputation of that journal than to wallow in the dark shadows of the edge of the cosmos.
5. Publicity in terms of quantity is better served by books than by law review articles, better served by being quoted extensively in newspapers and magazines than in other law review articles, and better served by writing a blog read by hundreds or thousands a day than by publishing some obscure paper delivered at some closed membership obscure society. Law school valuation of scholarship does not match publicity as such, but familiarity among members of a closed and small elite.
6. "Newer" forms of writing about legal issues don't get the same respect from most law faculty because most law faculty are unfamiliar with those newer forms, insecure about using them, or caught up in the pack mentality that, surprising to many outside the legal academy, permeates most law school faculties. Conformity is so enforced by the self-appointed guardians of what's right that only a few dare shift to publishing through blogs, wikis, and similar outlets. And, almost all of those who do so keep at least one foot in the "traditional legal scholarship" room.
7. Some law faculty define book by the binding, giving no allowance for digital publication or bindings that permit rapid updating because the area of law is one that changes with the speed of law practice rather than with the glacial movement of academia. There's something ironic about claiming legal scholarship is a dynamic, breathing, vibrant fuel for reform of and change in the law, and yet giving highest accolades to ideas published in a fixed, unalterable, hard cover bound book. Think about it. Seriously. Law publication ought not be considered scriptural and unerring, and thus is best published in ways that permit rapid correction and update: spiral bound monographs, looseleaf binders, blogs, wikis, listservs......
8. Doing "scholarship" the wrong way detracts from law faculties' ability to fulfill their primary obligation, which is preparing law students to assist their clients who need to have problems solved and problems prevented. Doing "scholarship" the right way enhances that ability. Absolutely nothing assures anyone that hard bound books and traditional legal student-edited journal scholarship is the "right" way.
Generations ago, someone had the courage and vision to write the first law review article. Will the current generation of law faculty have the courage and vision to move legal scholarship into the twenty-first century?
Wednesday, January 18, 2006
CPA Elaine Soost wrote:
As usual you hit upon a “real life” issue that is generally overlooked, both from the perspective of the employer and the employee (for whom it is a time value of money issue for having taxes withheld that shouldn't be). However, it is not just applicable to Federal social security taxes. In some cases it happens with state taxes as well, CA in particular.She also pointed out that when an employer merges with another company, the acquiring company ends up as a "new" employer, and thus wages earned from the acquired employer earlier in the year aren't aggregated with the earnings from the acquiring corporation for purposes of the $94,200 limitation. Additionally, the California state disability insurance premium charged against employees, which is subject to an annual limitation, ends up being treated in the same manner. The process of getting a refund of over-withheld state disability insurance premiums when there has been a merger of employers, at least in California, is cumbersome at best. Supposedly the employees are to seek refunds from the most recent employer, who in turn is supposed to seek a refund from the state. Does anyone involved in writing these laws and setting up the procedures go through a complete "if this then that else something else" analysis that covers all the possibilities? Do they understand the realities of the workplace and the burdens put on employees?
Elaine also asked if there are statistics indicating how many taxpayers file for over-withheld OASDI payments, how much excess OASDI is paid by small business employers in contrast to larger ones, and whether the disproportionality is higher in states where wages are generally higher, such as California, New York, and Hawaii. A quick bit of research turned up some interesting information. According to these summaries, in 1985 there were 870,892 income tax returns on which a total of $600,136,000 in excess social security payments were claimed. In 1990 the numbers had risen to 931,283 returns and $905,327,000 of excess payments. And in 1995, the numbers grew to 1,033,189 returns and $1,081,454,000 in excess payments. Theoretically at least, and surely as a practical matter, for every dollar of FICA over-withheld from an employee there is a dollar of excess FICA paid by an employer. We're talking more than a million taxpayers, and perhaps more considering that many of these returns are joint returns involving two taxpayers with excess social security payments. More important, we're talking in excess of a BILLION dollars.
I could not find anything, at least not on a quick search, breaking things down by size of employer or by state of residence. The latter information might exist in a detailed appendix to an IRS Statistics of Income report. I haven't invested the time seeing if it exists. I have my doubts if there is anything providing a breakout by employer size.
Someone else pointed out that in some states, state employees are not within the social security system but instead pay into a state retirement system. A state employee who has other wage or self-employment income is required to pay FICA or SECA even if their state earnings exceed the $94,200 OASDI limitation. To me, this is an apples and oranges situation. Many employees who pay FICA, and many self-employed individuals who pay SECA, also pay into a retirement system. Payments into the retirement system don't, and ought not, absolve the individual from paying into social security. What exists for these state employees is nothing more than an exemption from social security, both from paying into it and from taking benefits out of it. Are they better off? I don't know. Someone paying into both social security and a retirement system may be better off, but perhaps they are not. It depends, as they say, on the numbers. Speculation is that the exemption was designed to benefit the employees of one particular state, a representative from which was at the time a very powerful member of Congress, but because several other states had identical systems, the exemption ended up applying to their employees. That powerful member of Congress, by the way, ended up resigning in disgrace, for other reasons.
During the same day that these comments were arriving, another email arrived from a totally different source, from someone who, to the best of my knowledge, does not read this blog and is not a tax practitioner. It was one of those emails that the recipient is asked to forward to all their email contacts. The point of the email is that "Our Senators and Congresspersons do not pay into Social Security and, of course, they do not collect from it." Congress has their own plan. Here's how it works: "When they retire, they continue to draw the same pay until they die. Except it may increase from time to time for cost of living adjustments. For example, Senator Byrd and Congressman White and their wives may expect to draw $7,800,000.00 (that's Seven Million, Eight-Hundred Thousand Dollars), with their wives drawing $275,000.00 during the last years of their lives. This is calculated on an average life span for each of those two Dignitaries. * * * * Their cost for this excellent plan is$0.00. NADA....ZILCH...." The email proposes this solution: "Jerk the Golden Fleece Retirement Plan from under the Senators and Congressmen. Put them into the Social Security plan with the rest of us. Then sit back..... and see how fast they would fix it." Interesting concept. Merely bringing a few hundred people into the system moves some petty cash around the federal budget. On the other hand, perhaps if members of Congress faced the same prospects as those relying on Social Security, they would fix it. But are not members of Congress also entitled to a retirement plan? After all, many Americans have retirement plans. And many do not. Some state employees have retirement plans, perhaps not as generous as the Congressional plan, and like members of Congress, are not subject to social security. Uniformity would be helpful. What would be more helpful is a thorough overhaul of how America plans for the retirement years of its citizens. Let me correct that. What would be more helpful is a thorough overhaul of how American citizens plan for their retirement years. It's an issue that extends beyond over-withheld employer FICA payments. Perhaps understanding how poorly they dealt with this aspect of social security, or perhaps how intentionally they made it so, might help us understand why the repairs needed to deal with retirement income security are so difficult to identify and make.
Monday, January 16, 2006
For example, consider this story that could be made into a movie called "The Attack of the Tax Form Clones." Brian and Jackie Lawson made a arithmetic mistake on their 2003 income tax return. Because of the error, they've been paying $300 a month in back taxes. Wanting to fix the problem, they asked the IRS for a copy of the instructions for the 2003 Form 1040.
The IRS responded. With 24,000 copies. UPS delivered 12 boxes, each containing 2,000 copies of the instruction booklet. For 2005 tax returns. In boxes with errors on the mailing label, but UPS figured out that "Chimacum, D.C." was "Chimacum, Wash."
Then the other shoe dropped. The folks at UPS called the Lawsons to tell them that ANOTHER 12 boxes, each with 2,000 booklets, had arrived at a UPS warehouse. For the Lawsons. Who told UPS not to deliver them.
Whoa. Maybe the IRS figured out its mistake and sent the instructions for the 2003 Form 1040?
Brian Lawson has been unable to get the IRS to return his calls. After all, don't they want these booklets returned? That's 48,000 other taxpayers who will either go without or, to be serviced, will require additional federal money to be spent at the print shop. The newspaper that picked up on the story likewise has struck out trying to contact the IRS.
Brian Lawson also contributed two wonderful quotes. The first: "''We're hoping they'll be more understanding of our error since they made this big error." The second: "We should have had someone else do our taxes."
Now before we jump all over the IRS for this goof, remember, perhaps it isn't as it appears. Perhaps the IRS sent one booklet, and somehow, in transit, it cloned itself. A bunch of times. Perhaps the IRS shipment met up with something being sent by one of those super-secret Area pick-your-number hidden-alien-spaceship Defense Department project offices?
Seriously, I'm sure someone clicked on something in a software program that ought not have been clicked. But considering that the person did not understand the difference between "Wash." and "D.C." (and that only "Washington" precedes "D.C."), it might be something even more goofy. Perhaps something caused the computer to enter a loop that cycled 48,000 times before self-terminating.
Or, perhaps it's still cranking out orders, and by the time you read this the Lawsons will have received a few more calls from UPS about additional packages having arrived at a warehouse addressed to them. In the meantime, the folks over at the fulfillment center in the IRS forms and instructions shipping center must be going batty. "Who are these Lawson people?" "Oh, some tax practitioners with a whole bunch of clients."
Here's my suggestion to the Lawsons: Donate these booklets to local area senior high schools. One for each student. That's 48,000 soon-to-be-eligible-to-vote citizens getting a first-hand look at the niceties of the tax law, Form 1040 style. The teachers will appreciate not having to create a civics project for the year. And who knows? Maybe one or two of the 48,000 students will decide to become a tax practitioner. This is how a mistake can be turned into a good deed.
In the meantime, according to this report, the President has rejected the Tax Reform Panel's recommendation to tax a portion of employer-provided health benefits. It won't be long, I predict, until the President rejects the proposed cap on mortgage interest deductions, as his finger in the tax wind tells him it won't help his party in the 2006 mid-term elections. What will remain? The proposal to eliminate taxes on capital gains, interest, and most dividends. In other words, if some people had their way, the nation will have a federal wage tax rather than a federal income tax. Something like the woefully embarrassing wage tax levied by local municipalities and school boards in Pennsylvania. In other words, a disgrace. I do hope I am very, very wrong. About the prospects for a federal wage tax.
Friday, January 13, 2006
Technically, FICA/SECA consists of two portions. One, OASDI, which is an acronym for old age, survivors, and disability insurance, funds the benefits paid to retirees, disabled employees, and survivors of employees who die during or after employment. The other, HI, short for hospitalization insurance, funds what is commonly called Medicare. Of the 7.65% tax rate, 6.2% is for OASDI and 1.45% is for HI. The OASDI portion of the tax is applied to wages that do not exceed an annual limit, which for 226 is $94,200. The HI portion applies to wages no matter the amount. Thus, in 2006, the most OASDI tax that an employee should pay is $5,840.40.
Because there is a limit on the OASDI portion of the tax, an issue arises when a person has two or more employers during the taxable year. If there is only one employer, that employer can keep track of the individual's wages, and stop withholding the OASDI portion once the wages exceed the limit. But if there are two or more employers, they don't know how much the individual earns from the other employers, and there is no practical way, at present, for the multiple employers to coordinate their withholding. Individuals with multiple employers and sufficient wages may find that they have paid OASDI tax exceeding the limit. Under present law, an individual who pays more than the limit, for example, who has an aggregate of more than $5,840.40 withheld as OASDI taxes by all his or her employers, can claim an income tax credit for the excess. Even though the employers did not know how much OASDI tax was withheld by all of the employers, the employee does, and thus is in a position to compute the excess.
The glitch is on the employer side, there is no mechanism in place to determine that an excess has been paid. Thus, it is possible for an individual's multiple employers to pay, collectively, more than the limit. But there is no procedure for any of the employers to seek a refund. In other words, more OASDI tax is being paid simply because the individual has multiple employers. Incidentally, having multiple employers includes not only the situation in which a person simultaneously holds two or more jobs, but also the situation in which a person changes jobs during the year. The second employer not only withholds OASDI without regard to what the first employer did, but also pays the employer portion of OASDI without regard to the fact that the first employer has paid OASDI and perhaps has paid the full amount for the year.
It's difficult to decide whether this glitch is intentional, considering that it does increase the revenue, or simply the result of Congressional oversight. Yet it's not that Congress is unaware that people hold multiple jobs or change jobs. The existence of the mechanism to refund excess employee OASDI establishes that knowledge.
But why are employers denied the opportunity to obtain a refund for the excess employer OASDI? Perhaps, years ago, the logistics were insurmountable. However, today, with digital technology and comprehensive reporting of wage amounts to the IRS and the Social Security Administration, it would not require hundreds of accounting clerks to do the computation. Once the year has closed, and the IRS and SSA have received the wage data for an individual, the determination that the person has earned more than the limit permits a determination of how much excess employer OASDI has been paid. That excess could be refunded, or credited, to the employers in proportion to the amount of OASDI that they paid.
From a policy perspective, so long as the OASDI limit exists, and so long as employees move from job to job, the same notion of portability that is so prominent in compensation taxation considerations should similarly apply to this issue. The portability concept is that employees and employers should not be disadvantaged, in terms of the tax and other consequences of retirement savings, simply because employees change jobs. The same concept should apply to OASDI.
Of course, some argue that the limit on OASDI should be repealed. There are some strong points raised in those arguments. After all, if social security payments continue to be paid without application of a means test, so too OASDI should be imposed without regard to an income limitation. It might cause multimillionaires to pay in as much as they get in return, or more, but until the I in FICA is applied to a full-scale reform of the social security system, eliminating the cap on OASDI is not a silly idea worthy of instant dismissal. That, however, is a different question.
The more immediate question is why employers continue to be saddled with a collective employer OASDI tax higher than the limit. Considering the changes in American workplace practices in the many decades since social security was enacted, the assumptions underlying the present law, that people remain with the same employer for a lifetime and that people have one employer, should be disregarded. That would open the door to sensible reform.
Will it happen? I doubt it. Where are the tax cut advocates on this issue? Perhaps it's not as important to lighten an unjustifiable tax load on small employers as it is to make the inadequate rates on capital gains and dividends permanent. Who, I ask, really is your friend in Washington?
Wednesday, January 11, 2006
Thanks again to Mark Morin, who passed along an Associated press update on the now legend of the Fiery Mouse.
Apparently, the man whose house burned down in New Mexico last Saturday has once again changed his story back to the version that puts the blame, at least in part, on the mouse. But this time there are more details. And this time it is the man and his nephew who have clarified what happened. The homeowner, who admits to having "an awful hate" for mice, explained that a mouse got stuck to one of the glue traps he had set. The mouse, though trapped, was still moving. The homeowner tried to pull the mouse off the trap, but the glue was too strong. So that's why he tossed the mouse, still attached to the trap, into the burning leaf pile. Now, he claims, the mouse fully ablaze, scrambled back into the house through a window. Ninety seconds later, the house was burning.
When asked how a mouse glued to a trap could manage to get back into the house, the homeowner stated that the fire melted the glue. But apparently, I guess, not the mouse. Sounds a bit far-fetched.
But the local fire chief says he thinks it's possible. He says there's no reason for the homeowner to lie, and he has no doubts about the story. The fire chief says that the most recent reported story is the story given by the homeowner to the firefighters when they first arrived at the scene. The homeowner's nephew also claims that his uncle has shared the same story "many times."
It is sad. According to the nephew, all the family photos were lost. All the homeowner's papers are gone. The nephew conceded that his uncle, a World War II vet who has "been through a lot," might be "a little confused."
The fire chief noted that no further investigations are planned, and that the department's official report will include a statement that the burning mouse ran back into the house.
Now, who wants to volunteer to help this fellow with his tax return? Just don't grill the guy during the intake interview.
But no such challenge exists on this blog. If something has philosophical or theoretical value, and I'm interested in commenting on it, I do so. Likewise, if something has practical value, and I think it deserves attention, it will get it. The nice thing about blogs is that the artificial, but pragmatically inescapable limitation of 50 minutes at a time, 42 sessions a semester doesn't exist.
So today I want to share a posting made to several tax related listservs by Jim Counts CPA CTFA (email@example.com), who shared some very practical advice about mailing important documents, such as Tax Court petitions. What he says is relevant to just about any sort of legal filing, tax or otherwise. As long as I've been around, I've not encountered as useful and important an explanation about the difference between certified and registered mail as the one Jim offers. So, with his permission, I share it:
On one of my other listserves I just posted the following. Generally I get asked this a couple of times a year. So I thought I would post it here for those that might be interested.What particularly impresses me is how Jim takes a long-term view of the problem when making his analysis. Weighing the additional cost of registered mail against the aggravation of proving that a certified item was sent, he considers the value to the client of having things go as smoothly as possible.
Those that like Certified say in Tax Court etc it works just as well as Registered. In their mind they just want to prove they mailed the item. For me I do not want to have to spend time in Tax Court or dealing with the IRS to prove that the item was mailed on or by a certain day. I want it to actually get there. So I like registered.
In certified once the PO Clerk accepts the item they put it with all the other mail. When it gets to where it is going if that clerk sees the return receipt then they will get it signed. For registered that PO Clerk will LOG IN THE ITEM and everyone that has control over that item WILL SIGN FOR THAT ITEM until it is given to the one it is addressed to.
So in my opinion if someone signs for something and knows that later if they lose it someone will eventually come asking what did they do with it then I think they are less likely to lose that item and are likely to get the next person to sign saying they received it. I think that means it is less likely to get lost than a certified item. So I think I have just increased my odds that the item will actually make it to where it is addressed. So given that it is less likely that I will have to prove in Tax Court or with the IRS that my item was mailed on or by a certain date. Now I have just saved myself some time.
In the past prior to doing registered I had to spend some time on proving certified mailings. I have as of now I have not had to prove a registered mailing. Would I have to if I had sent all of that stuff certified? Do not know but I think I would have had a few over the years.
So the cost is only about $1.75 (not sure now new rates) more. If I did the mailing taxes saved half of that so I made an investment of the balance that I would not have to prove something mailed. If clients mailed an item and did not follow my recommendation of doing registered and now we need to prove a mailing then I charge them for the time.
Some different rules apply for registered mailings. No windows on the envelope. No tape on the item unless it is paper tape. No labels on the envelope. This is one of the reasons I still have a typewriter. My typewriter has memory for addresses so I can tell it to type my address in the return area. Also for IRS and FTB I have it memorized for mailing of returns.
So that is why registered and not certified.
In Jim's analysis, concern for the client takes its rightful place. That is a principle I stress in my teaching. I am preparing law students to become professionals who serve their clients and their clients' best interests. In some respects, my focus is on the future clients of my students and not on my students in an isolated educational environment. I'm not alone in this approach. Far from it. But I'm probably far more vocal about it than students expect, something I've concluded after being told by students that they rarely hear the word "client" in most of their classes. That's too bad. Clients are real. Clients bring problems that make the law real. Clients need help that makes it essential that practice reality inform the law school experience. But I've not taken class time to deal with how documents should be mailed. I do discuss why lawyers ought not wait until the 89th day to get a Tax Court petition (due on the 90th day) written and sent. Why the difference? I've assumed, perhaps erroneously, that when students get to their first job, someone will teach them or tell them or show them how it's done. Someone like a paralegal or legal secretary, who provide the glue that keeps the law practice world from falling apart over seemingly mundane things.
But now, all I need to do is to point them to this blog. I can get the message to them without investing class time, and without having to argue about whether dealing with such issues in a classroom brings a "trade school" taint to the tax course.
Note: For what it's worth, I don't require students to fill out tax forms, nor do I fill out forms in class, even though some students complain on student evaluations that my courses are way too theoretical because I don't have them doing tax forms. My courses? Too theoretical? Next thing you know they'll be claiming I'm taciturn and reserved.
Then came news that the mouse was dead when cast into the flames, and wind carried sparks into the house. The casualty loss deduction issues remain, but the story just isn't as interesting or attention-getting.
To the rescue comes Mark Cochran, who teaches tax at St. Mary's University School of Law. He reminds us of a famous torts case, United Novelty Co. v. Daniels, 42 So. 2d 395 (Miss. 1949). Quoting the facts as summarized by the Supreme Court of Mississippi:
Appellees include the members of the family of William Daniels, a minor aged nineteen years, who was fatally burned while cleaning coin-operated machines as an employee of appellant.And so into the law, more than a half century ago, entered the flaming rat. Yes, though the court was addressing a torts issue, casualty loss deduction issues lurk under the surface, assuming, of course, that there was no or inadequate insurance coverage for the damage.
The work was being performed in a room eight by ten feet in area, in which there was a gas heater then lighted with an open flame. The cleaning was being done with gasolene. The testimony yields the unique circumstance that the immediate activating cause of a resultant explosion was the escape of a rat from the machine, and its disappointing attempt to seek sanctuary beneath the heater whereat it overexposed itself and its impregnated coat, and returned in haste and flames to its original hideout. Even though such be a fact, it is not a controlling fact, and serves chiefly to ratify the conclusion that the room was permeated with gasolene vapors. Negligence would be predicated of the juxtaposition of the gasolene and the open flame. Under similar circumstances, the particular detonating agency, whether, as here, an animate version of the classic lighted squib, or as in Johnson v. Kosmos Portland Cement Co., 6 Cir., 64 F.2d 193, a bolt of lightning, was incidental except as illustrating the range of foreseeability.
These "animal afire" stories reach back centuries. Consider the fifteenth chapter of Judges, verses 4-6:
And Samson went and caught three hundred foxes, and took firebrands, and turned tail to tail, and put a firebrand in the midst between every two tails. And when he had set the brands on fire, he let them go into the standing grain of the Philistines, and burnt up both the shocks and the standing grain, and also the oliveyards. Then the Philistines said, Who hath done this? And they said, Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite, because he hath taken his wife, and given her to his companion. And the Philistines came up, and burnt her and her father with fire.Someday, when I have time (ha ha), I might sit down and see how many Bible stories can generate tax issues. For the moment, though, I'm content with warning folks not to let their pets play with matches.
Tuesday, January 10, 2006
Drat. It was such a great story. But it turns out that the house fire in New Mexico was NOT caused by a fleeing, flaming mouse. According to a WSB television report, the mouse was killed before it was tossed into the burning leaf pile. The fire apparently was caused by high winds spreading the embers. WSB has initially reported the story along with many other news services, and initiated further investigations after the news had spread world-wide. I guess people were questioning what they thought was an account just a wee bit on the other side of totally bizarre.
According to the most recent report, the homeowner has no insurance. So, despite throwing cold water on the supposed antics of an allegedly blazing mouse, the story keeps the flame of the hypothetical alive. How? The issue of gross negligence remains, continuing to present the question of whether leaf burning at the time violated any local laws, and adding the question of whether it is grossly negligent to burn leaves close enough to a home such that winds could carry burning embers into the structure. The area has been afflicted with unseasonably dry and windy conditions for at least several weeks. We still don't know if a casualty loss deduction is allowable.
So where did the tale of the flaming mouse come from? The local fire department captain explained that the rumor "probably got started because there was 'a little too much excitement' at the time of the fire." A little too much excitement? Sounds like tax class to me, even if the students aren't all fired up.
I feel bad for Paul Caron. Yesterday, in a post nicely titled, "Of Mice and Casualty Loss Deductions," he picked up on my analysis of the story. He stated, "Jim Maule has enlivened my income tax class for years to come by posting a wonderful Associated Press story that ran in newspapers across the country today, Blazing Mouse Torches House." Now, I guess he's back to a less-enlivened pedagogical prospect. OK, I'll keep my eye out for a similarly discussion sparking news item.
And thanks to Mark Morin for the tip.
Monday, January 09, 2006
First, the background. The Internal Revenue Code permits a deduction for casualty losses, in excess of certain limits, that are caused by fire, storm, shipwreck, or other casualty. Section 165(a) and (c)(3), to be more precise. Generally, despite the tax law being replete with cases dealing with whether something, such as termite damage or massive Southern pine beetle attacks, constitutes a casualty, fire pretty much is self-defined.
But there is another limitation. It arises from the public policy doctrine, which has been applied by courts to limit all sorts of deductions, not just casualty losses. A fascinating case that nicely explains the law, and life, not only to the taxpayer but to students of tax (and not just those enrolled in a tax course), is Blackman v. Commissioner, 88 T.C. 677 (1987). I cannot do justice to the facts through paraphrase, and because they are set forth by the court in three paragraphs, here they are:
The petitioner's employer transferred him from Baltimore, Maryland, to South Carolina. The petitioner relocated his wife and children to South Carolina. Mrs. Blackman was dissatisfied with South Carolina and returned, with the couple's five children, to Baltimore. During the 1980 Labor Day weekend, the petitioner returned to Baltimore, hoping to persuade his wife to give South Carolina another chance. When he arrived at his Baltimore home, he discovered that another man was living there with his wife. The neighbors told the petitioner that such man had been there on other occasions when the petitioner had been out of town on business.Mr. Blackman was arrested, charged with arson, and sentenced to probation without verdict. The homeowners insurance company refused to pay. And, Mr. Blackman claimed a casualty loss deduction on his tax return. The relevant portions of the court's opinion are worth reading:
On September 1, 1980, the petitioner returned to his former home to speak to his wife. However, Mrs. Blackman was having a party; her guests refused to leave despite the petitioner's request that they do so. He returned to the house several times, repeating his request, and emphasizing it by breaking windows. Mrs. Blackman's guests did not leave the house until about 3 a.m., September 2, 1980.
Later, on September 2, 1980, the petitioner again went to his former home. He wanted to ask his wife whether she wanted a divorce. They quarreled, and Mrs. Blackman left the house. After she left, the petitioner gathered some of Mrs. Blackman's clothes, put them on the stove, and set them on fire. The petitioner claims that he then "took pots of water to dowse the fire, put the fire totally out" and left the house. The fire spread, and the fire department was called. When the firefighters arrived, they found some of the clothing still on the stove. The house and its contents were destroyed.
* * * * *the Commissioner argues that the petitioner intentionally set the fire which destroyed his home in violation of Maryland's public policy, that allowing the deduction would frustrate that public policy, and that, therefore, under the doctrine of Commissioner v. Heininger, 320 U.S. 467 (1943), and subsequent cases, the petitioner is not entitled to a deduction for the damage caused by his fire. * * * * *So now, having been brought up to speed to the point where a student in a tax course should be when entering the classroom on the day casualty loss deductions are discussed, everyone is ready for the professor's hypothetical. Except it is not a hypothetical. It is a story reported in this morning's Philadelphia Inquirer (free subscription site). The headline is almost priceless: "Blazing Mouse Torches House." When I saw this, I wondered, "What is a blazing mouse?" The story answered the question:
Moreover, it is well settled that the negligence of the taxpayer is not a bar to the allowance of the casualty loss deduction. * * * * * On the other hand, gross negligence on the part of the taxpayer will bar a casualty loss deduction. * * * * * "Needless to say, the taxpayer may not knowingly or willfully sit back and allow himself to be damaged in his property or willfully damage the property himself."
In our judgment, the petitioner's conduct was grossly negligent, or worse. He admitted that he started the fire. He claims that he attempted to extinguish it by putting water on it. Yet, the firemen found clothing still on the stove, and there is no evidence to corroborate the petitioner's claim that he attempted to dowse the flame. The fact is that the fire spread to the entire house, and we have only vague and not very persuasive evidence concerning the petitioner's attempt to extinguish the fire. Once a person starts a fire, he has an obligation to make extraordinary efforts to be sure that the fire is safely extinguished. This petitioner has failed to demonstrate that he made such extraordinary efforts. The house fire was a foreseeable consequence of the setting of the clothes fire, and a consequence made more likely if the petitioner failed to take adequate precautions to prevent it. We hold that the petitioner's conduct was grossly negligent and that his grossly negligent conduct bars him from deducting the loss claimed by him under section 165(a) and (c)(3).
In addition, allowing the petitioner a deduction would severely and immediately frustrate the articulated public policy of Maryland against arson and burning. Maryland's policy is clearly expressed. Article 27, section 11, of the Maryland Annotated Code (Repl. vol. 1982), makes it a felony to burn a residence while perpetrating a crime. * * * * * We are mindful, also, that Maryland has an articulated public policy against domestic violence. We refuse to encourage couples to settle their disputes with fire. We hold that allowing a loss deduction, in this factual setting, would severely and immediately frustrate the articulated public policies of Maryland against arson and burning, and against domestic violence.
A man in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, caught a mouse inside his house. To dispose of it, he threw it on a pile of leaves that he was burning outside the house. The mouse, on fire, escaped from its hellish environment and ran back into the man's house. And somehow set it on fire. The firefighters, who claimed this was a first for them, determined that the mouse had run to a point underneath a window. Though the story doesn't explain what happened, I'm guessing that there were curtains on the window. The house, and everything in it, was destroyed.
Can this man claim a casualty loss deduction?
More facts are needed. When I point that out to students, they often groan. More facts? Yes. If, for example, the man has homeowners insurance and it fully covers the loss, then there is no casualty loss deduction, because there is no loss. Nothing in the story tells us if there is insurance. Of course, to get an education from this "hypothetical" we need to assume that there is no insurance.
Where does that take us?
Was the man grossly negligent? Was the house fire a "foreseeable consequence" of tossing of a captured mouse into a pile of burning leaves? Would it matter if outdoor leaf burning was illegal? Ah, this question means that there is more information that is required. Some towns have permanent bans on outdoor leaf burning, and others impose temporary bans during droughts or periods of high fire risk. Considering the number of wildfires that pop up in New Mexico, this is more than a theoretical possibility. Is it against public policy to throw living mice into burning leaf policies? Did the man have a chance to extinguish the fire at the window? Did he try? Oh, if it matters, the man was 81 years of age. Maybe that matters. Maybe not.
I'm not going to determine if a casualty loss deduction would be permitted. I don't know. I don't have the necessary facts. Nor do I want to devalue this story's utility as a future examination or semester exercise question.
So this morning, as I head off to class, I'm going to be careful about getting the students fired up about their new courses. They may have a burning interest in the subject matter, but I'd rather they not flame me.
OK, that's enough. I'm running the risk of extinguishing my readership.
Friday, January 06, 2006
What some prisoners have been doing is easily described, and it doesn't take an LL.M. in Taxation to understand how it works or why it's bad. A prisoner with access to the Internet or a prison library prints out or makes copies of IRS forms. The prisoner, or others in the scheme, prepare fraudulent documents showing fictitious withheld taxes on fictitious income. Using these forms, the prisoners then file tax returns seeking refunds of the supposedly overpaid taxes. That's the basic pattern, though there are many variations. It is not my intent to provide a guidebook on how to imitate these practices, so I'm not going into the details. In most instances, there are confederates on the outside who do the mailing and receive the refund checks, usually taking a percentage of the check as a fee for mailing the forms and cashing the checks.
The blueprint for the scheme passes from prisoner to prisoner, and from prison to prison. It has been described as a "huge" prison enterprise. How they have time for this is something I don't understand. I do understand it's not economically efficient to have prisoners making license plates, but wide open access to the internet, photocopy machines, printers, libraries, and outside contacts seems more the stuff of a resort than of a prison, whether the focus is punitive or remedial.
It's not that the IRS doesn't detect at least some of these fraudulent filings. In 2005, the IRS flagged 18,000 prisoners who filed false refund claims amounting to $68 million. According to Congressional testimony by Nancy Jardini, who heads the IRS criminal investigation unit, tax fraud by prisoners has grown by 700 percent in three years. [I digress: Nancy is a graduate of Villanova's Law School, who cut her tax teeth in my basic tax course. When I explain to my students that there's no way of knowing when they'll come to appreciate having been introduced to tax law even though they plan a career in a very different area, I describe Nancy's journey from law school, through a few years as a criminal defense attorney, additional years as a federal prosecutor, and an appointment as Chief of Criminal Investigation for the IRS. I warn students that the tax world never misses a chance to pull a good attorney into its realm. We here at Villanova are proud of Nancy's accomplishments, including the fact that she is the first woman appointed to head IRS Criminal Investigation in its 85-year history.]
But even though the fraudulent filings are flooding the IRS, and even though the IRS detects a significant number of them, few inmates are prosecuted. Insufficient resources push these cases onto the back burner, and prisoners know it. During a two year period, only one prisoner in Arizona was prosecuted, despite the fact that inmates in that state generated about half of the false returns filed in Arizona, and that most likely happened because the prisoner in question managed to file false returns claiming more than $200,000 in false refunds. The prize goes to an anonymous inmate who also testified in front of a Congressional subcommittee. He filed 700 returns claiming $3.5 million in fraudulent refunds.
In addition to insufficient resources to prosecute these crimes, the IRS and prison officials are hampered by privacy laws that prohibit the IRS from disclosing taxpayer information. Thus, after prison officials alert the IRS to their discovery of a fraudulent return operation in their prisons, turning over seized items such as lists of social security numbers, the IRS cannot coordinate efforts with those officials or even tell those officials if their tips led to a successful outcome.
Finally, a practical concern encourages prosecutors to let the matter slide. The people filing the false returns are already imprisoned, if successfully prosecuted they'll get no more than two dozen months added to their term, many of the witnesses lack credibility, and it's difficult to figure out which prisoners are active members of the plot and which ones are innocent identify theft victims.
The IRS and prison officials cannot fix this problem without help from Congress. The IRS cannot unilaterally ignore privacy laws enacted by the Congress and having the effect of shielding prisoners from prosecution. The IRS cannot print money to fund the additional staffing and support personnel required to save taxpayers the tens of millions, or hundreds of millions, of dollars ending up in prisons where it can be used to finance trade in illegal drugs, other contraband, and illicit activities. Congress has held hearings on the matter. The IRS has proposed changes to the language of privacy statutes that would permit cooperation with prison officials. It remains to be seen if Congress can muster up the courage to invest $10 or $20 million to prevent the payment to prisoners of five or ten times that amount in falsely claimed refunds. I am sure Nancy Jardini and her charges would make good use of those funds to patch up an embarrassing glitch in the federal income tax collection and refund procedure. For a Congress in need of some New Year's Resolutions, I suggest putting this on the list.
Wednesday, January 04, 2006
Yesterday, lobbyist Jack Abramoff pleaded guilty to a variety of charges. Not only was conspiracy and fraud on the list, he went for the trifecta with tax evasion. Why is it that criminals never learn to stay clean with the tax returns? Perhaps because the attitude that they should be unfettered by civilized rules pervades their life, making the filing of a proper tax return a compulsive impossibility. So does a lobbyist without due regard for the tax law, evidenced by tax evasion, work the halls of Congress in ways that respect the integrity of legislative development? I doubt it. It remains to be seen whether, and to what extent, the corruption affected decisions on tax law changes. According to the linkedCNN report, among Abramoff's longtime associates is Grover Norquist, director of Americans for Tax Reform. It's not my sort of tax reform. Masked behind the calls for lower tax rates are proposals whose impact would make tax law worse. For example, the so-called "National Taxpayer Protection Pledge" includes a promise to "oppose any net reduction or elimination of deductions and credits, unless matched dollar for dollar by further reducing tax rates." In other words, the organization refuses to support removing from the tax law badly designed and poorly implemented deductions and credits unless the inappropriate tax savings produced by those deductions and credits is preserved. Norquist's organization supported H.R. 2895, which would extend the multi-layered, unduly complex, policy questionable section 168(k) of the Internal Revenue Code, which added yet more computational nonsense to the depreciation deduction. Even if the goal of encouraging business investment is one that should be addressed through depreciation deductions, it makes no sense to add layers of complexity rather than reform the core provisions of section 168. Just last month, Americans for Tax Reform issued a statement supporting the extension of the special rates for capital gains and selected dividends, one of the most dreadful and complicated elements of the current federal income tax law. Abramoff's guilty plea was accompanied by a promise to come forward with information about his activities. We should watch for future developments very carefully. Why? Consider that CNN was told that "Abramoff may have thousands of e-mails in which he describes influence-peddling and explains what lawmakers were doing in exchange for the money he was putting into their campaign coffers."
Although the specifics of Abramoff's guilty plea, and the information he is expected to provide, may be news, the general tenor of the situation is not. Yesterday, CNN released the results of a poll indicating that roughly half of American adults believe "most members of Congress are corrupt." Wow. Talk about a lack of confidence. People claim I am a cynical critic. Well, perhaps I am, but I am not alone. This is roughly half of the adults in this country thinking that MOST, not some, or a few, but MOST members of Congress are corrupt. CNN notes that the poll "makes it clear that the perception of congressional politicians is largely negative." Maybe the public is too harsh. Maybe my expectations are too high. I doubt it. After all, what am I, or the public, to think when a source close to the Abramoff probe explains that it "involves about two dozen lawmakers and staffers."
Members of Congress, and their staff, are public servants. They have an obligation to serve the public, not themselves. They must be held to the standards applicable to trustees because they are entrusted with the public welfare. In a theological sense, they are stewards, because they must be held to the protection not only of public funds, but the defense of the nation and the guardianship of citizens' rights, including the right to be represented openly and fairly in a democratic process free of the taint of dirty money. Let's not overlook the likelihood that the corruption dollars flowing into private pockets on Capitol Hill, or into campaign funds, were not coming from the poor or the middle class. Those who have been using their wealth improperly, regardless of how they obtained the wealth, have become bolder and more disrespectful of the nation and its citizens as each day passed.
The culture of corruption, of bribery, of putting one's own selfish interests above those of the public one is required to serve will also trigger yet another easy-to-predict Top Ten tax story of 2006. At least one politician, one celebrity, and one lawyer will run afoul of the tax law by failing to file a tax return or by failing to pay income taxes. The year 2005 closed with a case involving an attorney who failed to pay income tax, but escaped being disbarred from practice before the United States District Court because the state law treated failure to pay as insufficient to warrant the disciplinary action that would come from failure to file a return. Nonetheless, the attorney was convicted of a misdemeanor. I tell my students that if they, or a client, are unable to pay income taxes, file the return and ask for a payment arrangement. The IRS and the Department of Justice are not going to pursue criminal charges against someone who acknowledges a tax liability and seeks to pay it, unless the person fraudulently hides his or her assets, fails to disclose the problem, or otherwise acts in a manner inconsistent with a responsible attitude toward the tax debt.
It is a challenge getting across to law students the point that when they enter the profession, and even as law students, they are subject to a higher set of integrity standards than those that apply generally to citizens of the nation. Holding to those standards by being open and honest would do much to curtail the low level of esteem in which attorneys are held. Likewise, members of Congress and state legislatures, many of whom, not surprisingly, are attorneys, would do much to enhance public respect for legislatures if they went about their duties openly and honestly. Getting this point across to politicians is no less frustrating than getting it across to law students. Many hear, but only some listen and abide.
When coupled with the consequences of corporate greed and corruption, accounting misdeeds, lawyer noncompliance, and lobbyist bribery, the exposure of significant legislative malfeasance may trigger more than a momentary backlash. In its wake, I hope, will come a sweeping away of the detritus of special interest legislation, including the tax law provisions that benefit a privileged few at the expense of the unrepresented many. One way or another, though, this mess probably will make for some sort of top ten tax story a year from now.
Monday, January 02, 2006
This story is all about how a tax law provision can be found in a Defense Department Appropriations bill. Section 5021 of H.R. 2863, which was presented to the President on December 28 for signature, contains the following provision:
SEC. 5021. For purposes of compliance with section 205 of Public Law 109–115, a reduction in taxpayer service shall include, but not be limited to, any reduction in available hours of telephone taxpayer assistance on a daily, weekly and monthly basis below the levels in existence during the month of October 2005.So what does THIS mean?
Let's go back a few months. When Congress enacted the Transportation-Treasury Appropriations bill, it allotted $11.7 billion to the IRS for fiscal year 2006. This is a $400 million increase over the fiscal year 2005 budget. However, in order to provide more funding for other IRS functions, Congress mandated a DECREASE in the IRS customer service budget of $100 million. This bill directed the IRS to continue improving its telephone hot-line service and to allocate resources necessary to increase the number of phone lines and staff available for the hot-line.
The IRS had announced plans to close 68 of its walk-in assistance centers, intending that its web site and toll-free telephone hot line would provide adequate replacements for the closed locations. By doing this, the IRS would save $50 million. Congress, however, put a stop to these plans, enacting legislation that required the Treasury Department's Inspector General for Tax Administration to study the impact of the proposed closings, with the first report due on April 14, 2006 and the second on October 1, 2006. This legislation prohibited reduction or termination of any taxpayer services by the IRS until 60 days after the reports are submitted, and then only after consultation by the IRS with those affected by any changes.
Faced with this obstacle to dealing with the $100 million cut-back in its customer service budget, the IRS then announced that it would reduce the hours during which its toll-free taxpayer assistance hot-line would operate from 15 hours a day to 12 hours a day. It explained that 93 percent of the calls received by the hot-line come in during the 12 hours from 8 a.m. until 8 p.m. Almost immediately, the president of the National Treasury Employees Union called the planned cutback in telephone assistance "outrageous" and claimed that the reduction would "push" some taxpayers into noncompliance. Another report claims she called it "an outrage." Yet another report claims she called it "an absolute outrage." The NTEU president also characterized the planned cutback as a serious mistake in emphasis and resource allocation by the IRS.
In response, the Congress inserted the quoted language into the Defense Department Appropriations Bill. The purpose was to clarify that the prohibition on cutting back customer service also applies to the toll-free telephone assistance program. An IRS official has stated that the IRS would continue to meet customer demand by providing the same level of service as in previous years, but that it would not hire the 400 seasonal workers it usually hires. This news makes it easier to understand why the NTEU had no loss for words in conveying its anger at the IRS plans.
But let's see if I understand this. The Congress cuts the IRS customer service budget by $100 million. At the same time it tells the IRS not to cut customer service, and when the IRS tries to wiggle around the definition by cutting telephone hot line hours, Congress smacks the IRS wrist. Huh? The ONLY logical message from these actions is that the IRS must find a way to provide the same service for less money. What are the possibilities? Negotiate lower rates for the phone lines from the telephone companies? Hardly. Hire fewer seasonal workers and shift the workload onto existing workers? Perhaps, but then union officials and members will howl. Cut back telephone hours that would have been covered by the seasonal workers? No, that also brought howls from the union, perhaps because it figured that the calls that would have come in during the eliminated hours would come in during the remaining hours, thus increasing the work load for existing workers whose numbers aren't supplemented this year by seasonal hires.
It seems to me that if the Congress has some specific ideas on how to run the IRS and its taxpayer services, it ought to say so. The actions of the Congress remind me of those all-too-familiar folks who are quick to criticize but when pushed for an alternative, stare blankly and mumble, "I don't know." My response is that the admitted lack of knowledge makes the criticism a reflection of nothing more than ignorance.
Did it ever occur to the geniuses who cobbled together this nonsense that the easiest way to reduce the need for customer service by the IRS is to SIMPLIFY THE TAX LAW? Is it remotely possible that nonsense such as the multiple-rate schedule arrangement for umpteen categories of capital gains and certain dividends contributes to taxpayer need for IRS assistance? Or perhaps that the confusing array of mutually inconsistent and definitionally complex provisions encouraging education contribute to taxpayer confusion?
Here's an idea. If Congress doesn't want to spend the money investing in the collection of revenue, then let Congress invest some time. Each member of Congress ought to volunteer to staff the IRS hot-line. The proposed cutbacks, 3 hours a day for the roughly 84 days of the tax filing season, amount to 252 hours. If each member volunteers 5 hours of time, it should provide an average of 10 Senators or Representatives per hour during those 3 hours a day that are so critical. Oh, wait. We want competent advice offered to taxpayers. Scratch that plan.
There's no escaping the fact that it is totally irresponsible of the Congress to demand that the IRS maintain customer service, spend more money on increasing the number of phone lines and staff for its hot line, and yet cut $100 million from the IRS customer service budget. Somewhere, someone is relying on some philosophical theory without having had any experience with practical implementation. So while we wait for reports from the Inspector General for Tax Administration, that cannot hardly be expected to tell us anything we don't already know, the administrators at the IRS must deal with the mess Congress has made. Is it any wonder that so few people care to apply for an IRS administrative position? Is it any wonder that IRS employee morale is something less than wonderful?
New Year. Same old Congress. How happy.